Cardiovascular Disease Control Examinations - Prof. Valerio Sanguigni
A fundamental condition to prevent cardiovascular disease is to "photograph" the state of health of our heart and our cardiovascular system.
Although cardiovascular diseases may unfortunately already be underway, if treated early, you can dramatically reduce the risk of acute events (heart attack or stroke).
It’s therefore important to undergo guided screening, based on a careful clinical evaluation by the physician, and undergo a range of diagnostic and laboratory examinations.
Each of these examinations alone cannot give all the necessary indications, but the information obtained from each examination is critical to assessing a patient's "degree of cardiovascular risk" and to plan for a range of targeted (therapeutic or invasive) interventions.
There are level I and level II examinations (more specific).
Level I exams
1) ECG (alone has a low sensitivity for any coronary disease already present).
2) ECG under stress (essential to discriminate against coronary heart disease).
3) Echocardiogram with Doppler Study (important for evaluating contractile function of the heart and possible pathologies to cardiac, even congenital valves).
4) Holter 24 hour ECG (develops heart rate monitoring for 24 hours, determinant in the presence of suspected arrhythmias).
5) Holter 24 hour blood pressure (crucial to check whether the patient is suffering from arterial hypertension and should then undergo antihypertensive therapy, but also to check the actual effectiveness of a therapy already underway).
Level II examinations
1) myocardial scintigraphy by strain. In the presence of a suspicious ECG, it results in an accurate study of the perfusion of the heart to identify an ischemic area of the heart.
2) Coronary CAT. A high-definition thoracic CAT that detects coronary lesions when previous examinations (under stress and myocardial scintigraphy) strongly suspect an ischemic coronary disease.
3) Coronarography. An invasive examination with positioning of a catheter inside the arteries to evaluate any coronary stenosis and treat it in that same session with an angioplasty and placement of a STENT.